Caster (or castor) (0.35 mm), a very fine sugar in Britain, so-named because the grains are small enough to fit through a castor, a form of sieve. Commonly used in baking and mixed drinks, it is sold as "superfine" sugar in the United States. Because of its fineness it dissolves more quickly than regular white sugar and is thus especially useful in meringues and cold liquids. Castor sugar can be prepared at home by grinding granulated sugar for a couple of minutes in a food processor.
>Is that the underside of a wheel seen behind him leaning against the wall? It kind of looks like the same circumference so maybe that is what the bottom looks like and might help in figuring all those questions out.
... and could the bottom pivot be standing in-front of the that wheel (like an upside down thumb-tack).
Could be a very nifty way of getting the centre of gravity of the wheel below a single pivot point,
Thanks, but the sugar raku I'm interested in is a variant of the 2-part naked raku process, in
which the refractory 1st coat contains sugar. Normally 2-part naked raku leaves black "crackle"
lines. On the other hand sugar raku -- from the few photos I've seen -- leaves black patches,
often with some sort of halo effect.
Overall effect is something like the left-hand pot in
Chinese Porcelain:. Porcelain has been made in China probably since
the 6th or 7th century A. D. Quartz, feldspar, and kaolin were then,
as now, the raw materials employed. The name “kaolin”, for china
clay derived from old deposits on the mountain Kao- ling in China.
Observations had been made since the 9th century about the fact that
“chinese have particularly fine clay which they use to make drinking
vessels with the delicacy of glass; although they are made of clay.”
Such items had great strength, were shaped perfectly by hand, and have
wall thickness of less than 0.4mm! During Mongol domination (1280-1368)
the knowledge was lost. Ceramics from the following Ming dinasty was
not as thin as before, even they tried to use the most plastic kaolin
deposits they found. Only till the end of the Ming dinasty (1644) thin
ceramics appear again, but in this case those were made from illite,
which has a-priori a considerably higher plasticity than kaolin,
making it easier to handle. The secret of ancient Chinese kaolin-based
porcelain must therefore lie in some technique enabling delicate items
to be formed from kaolin of poor plasticity, which would normally be
expected to require clays of extremely good plasticity. Weiss (1963)
showed that by mixing kaolinite with urea and aging it “The kaolinite
crystals did not dissolve, but the urea-based chemicals penetrated into
the crystal lattice and increased the distance between the kaolinite
layers from 7.2 to 10.7 A. Rheological behavior of kaolin does indeed
increase strongly with this pretreatment. A kaolin of low thixotropy
subjected to this treatment yields a material surpassing the best ceramic
kaolins and approximating sodium bentonites.