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John:

I did some quick reading, and speaking for me only: think the problem runs deeper than that. The whole theory of Darwinism is based on the rise of mankind out of the African continent. So, in order to establish and confirm that theory, development and migration followed that premise. Accepting evidence to the contrary would pose questions: cannot have that! Showing bias in the factual historical record is never a good thing.

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The history of Porcelain.

 

There is no precise date to separate the production of proto-porcelain from that of porcelain. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC)

 

By the late Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD)and early Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) the additional whiteness and translucency had been achieved.

 

By the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe.

 

Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas of East Asia, during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). Ding Ware became the premier porcelain of Song Dynasty. Porcelain was exported to the Persian Empire during this time; and Persian porcelain was developed shortly after.

* dates generalized due to lack of exact information.

 

By the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe. In 1517, Portuguese merchants began direct trade by sea with the Ming Dynasty, and in 1598, Dutch merchants followed. The first mention of porcelain in Europe is in Il Milione by Marco Polo.

 

Meissen Porcelain 1708

 

Von Tschirnhaus and Johann Friedrich Böttger were employed by Augustus II the Strong and worked at Dresden and Meissen in the German state of Saxony. A workshop note records that the first specimen of hard, white and vitrified European porcelain was produced in 1708.

 

Soft paste porcelain.

 

Saint-Cloud manufactures the first soft paste porcelain bowl1700–1710.

Chantilly porcelain, soft-paste, 1750

The pastes produced by combining clay and powdered glass (frit) were called Frittenporzellan in Germany and frita in Spain. In France they were known as pâte tendre and in England as "soft-paste".

 

William Cookworthy discovered deposits of kaolin in Cornwall, leading to the development of porcelain and other whiteware ceramics in the United Kingdom in 1768. Cookworthy developed the original formula for the now famous: English bone china.

 

The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell.

 

(Urban Legend) porcelain was discovered accidentally at Meissen (Germany), when after plowing a new field; the farmer scraped the white clay off the hooves of his horses.

 

Nerd..information sourced from Wikipedia

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John:

I did some quick reading, and speaking for me only: think the problem runs deeper than that. The whole theory of Darwinism is based on the rise of mankind out of the African continent. So, in order to establish and confirm that theory, development and migration followed that premise. Accepting evidence to the contrary would pose questions: cannot have that! Showing bias in the factual historical record is never a good thing.

Glazenerd,

 

While much of what Darwin wrote has been proven true, there are theories out there that there were several pockets of change bringing about modern man. At the same time, we are constantly rewriting history based on archaeological finds. For example a 14K old village in British Columbia that shows man was in the Americas much earlier than previously reckoned. So I will not refute or stipulate, only keep an open mind.

 

 

best,

Pres

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On 8/3/2017 at 8:00 PM, glazenerd said:

John:

I did some quick reading, and speaking for me only: think the problem runs deeper than that. The whole theory of Darwinism is based on the rise of mankind out of the African continent. So, in order to establish and confirm that theory, development and migration followed that premise. Accepting evidence to the contrary would pose questions: cannot have that! Showing bias in the factual historical record is never a good thing.

Darwinism is more about the ongoing adaptation to the advantages in an ever changing world,  like we do when we make pottery that suits its use and context, but driven by success leading to more offspring suited to that context. As an adaptation ceases to suit its context's demands, itr falls back away. white bears in the arctic but pretty rare in the south etc... round bottomed pots for fire-pit usage or flat bottomed for a stove. fire cleaned dishes in kurgan obvara, or water and sand cleaned pots in coastal areas lead to other surfaces and firing temps. Kiln enables higher temps, salty lumber in kiln leads to salt kilns... and on it goes where affects how and in the end who. You described African Replacement hypothesis, which has had  a recent find throw Bulgaria/Greece as  earlier sources of hominids.  We are all just trying to make the patterns to help us understand. 

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The History of Slip.... Yes it has a history.

1708. Porcelain discovered in Germany. ( folk lore says) it was discovered accidentally when a farmer scrapped off whitish mud  from the hooves of his horses.

1710 Meissen hard paste porcelain is used commercially in Germany. Link to Meissen vase circa 1730 below.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Meissen_hard_porcelain_vase_circa_1730.jpg/991px-Meissen_hard_porcelain_vase_circa_1730.jpg

1710 to 1740 hard paste porcelain is developed commercially in France and England.

1833. First recorded use of deflocculants used to thin paste. 3% potassium carbonate- Germany

1891 first commercial patent for deflocculant issued in Germany.

1903 first commercial application of deflocculated paste used in Germany.

1910 early laboratory experiments started to investigate the properties of deflocculation.

1941 A.F. Horton (M.I.T.) releases first cohesive study on the effects of PH on viscosity. A modified "viscometer" is used.

1948 A.F. Horton ( M.I.T.) releases his theory of "Strecthed Membrane" to illustrate the effects of sodium in deflocculation.

1950--- "viscosity becomes the measuring standard for slips.

side note: up until 1900; potassium carbonate was used as a deflocculant.

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On August 5, 2017 at 4:25 AM, glazenerd said:

The history of Porcelain.

 

There is no precise date to separate the production of proto-porcelain from that of porcelain. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC)

 

By the late Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD)and early Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) the additional whiteness and translucency had been achieved.

 

By the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe.

 

Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas of East Asia, during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). Ding Ware became the premier porcelain of Song Dynasty. Porcelain was exported to the Persian Empire during this time; and Persian porcelain was developed shortly after.

* dates generalized due to lack of exact information.

 

By the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe. In 1517, Portuguese merchants began direct trade by sea with the Ming Dynasty, and in 1598, Dutch merchants followed. The first mention of porcelain in Europe is in Il Milione by Marco Polo.

 

Meissen Porcelain 1708

 

Von Tschirnhaus and Johann Friedrich Böttger were employed by Augustus II the Strong and worked at Dresden and Meissen in the German state of Saxony. A workshop note records that the first specimen of hard, white and vitrified European porcelain was produced in 1708.

 

Soft paste porcelain.

 

Saint-Cloud manufactures the first soft paste porcelain bowl1700–1710.

Chantilly porcelain, soft-paste, 1750

The pastes produced by combining clay and powdered glass (frit) were called Frittenporzellan in Germany and frita in Spain. In France they were known as pâte tendre and in England as "soft-paste".

 

William Cookworthy discovered deposits of kaolin in Cornwall, leading to the development of porcelain and other whiteware ceramics in the United Kingdom in 1768. Cookworthy developed the original formula for the now famous: English bone china.

 

The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell.

 

(Urban Legend) porcelain was discovered accidentally at Meissen (Germany), when after plowing a new field; the farmer scraped the white clay off the hooves of his horses.

 

Nerd..information sourced from Wikipedia

What ?45 years into Porcelain and I'm not mentioned

Oh I see its the soft paste which refers to the way my back feels now. I get it

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17 hours ago, glazenerd said:

Ooopppssss.

1953: Marks' mother begins to slip sodium silicate into his formula to prepare him for a life in pottery.

record corrected.. My bad

I hate to break the news but I was ahead of my time and only breast fed in 53-My mother taught Home economics and nutrition.She was ahead of her time.

 

Edited by Mark C.

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I was far from a production potter back then-as a kid  then at 23 I only made what I wanted to and glazed it how I liked it. It was more aboutb the learning what sold and what did not stage. It was all stoneware with a touch of porcelain and a few slipped bottles.Heavy production started about mid 80s.Heck at that age I  was not even on coffee yet.

My oldest brother introduced me to strong Turkish coffee soon after this photo aftera back packing trip and then I got serious about longer hours of work.

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12 hours ago, Mark C. said:

I was far from a production potter back then-as a kid  then at 23 I only made what I wanted to and glazed it how I liked it. It was more aboutb the learning what sold and what did not stage. It was all stoneware with a touch of porcelain and a few slipped bottles.Heavy production started about mid 80s.Heck at that age I  was not even on coffee yet.

My oldest brother introduced me to strong Turkish coffee soon after this photo aftera back packing trip and then I got serious about longer hours of work.

Crafts fairs looked so different then than now. This is what I remember so strongly. There was an informality, and each vendor looked like he or she was set up at a garage work bench and brought the stuff out for the fair. There was no polish, no professional looking displays, no branding, no name tags, no business cards. It was all very earthy and in a sense romantic.

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59 minutes ago, Gabby said:

Crafts fairs looked so different then than now. This is what I remember so strongly. There was an informality, and each vendor looked like he or she was set up at a garage work bench and brought the stuff out for the fair. There was no polish, no professional looking displays, no branding, no name tags, no business cards. It was all very earthy and in a sense romantic.

Yes it was a different time -all booths where completly unique-no pop up canopies-we made our own shade covers.I had no business cards in the early days.

I recall for few years and for sure at this show we kept the money in a casserole dish that was cracked -after the show we split it up at a mexican restaurant over dinner.

simpler times for sure.

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