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  2. Sounds like your sitter needs adjustment, cleaning and checking. All the power comes into the sitter so if it trips, everything turns off. There are several you tube videos out there that may be helpful, search kiln sitter if you are a DIY er. My guess is the slightest bend of your cone shuts it off prematurely. Maybe a bent rod, but service just the same. I believe your wiring diagram below and a screenshot of the manual. Both are available on the Cress site.
  3. Staying off topic We have Kenyan Hansen here for today and tomorrow for our residents. Should see some nice soda work Monday morning by all.
  4. I recently purchased a second hand Cress FX-911 kiln. It has a kiln sitter and a Firemate Control. I have been trying to fire it for almost a week. Yesterday, I had some success, but something is still not right. I was firing to 04, to bisque fire some cookies and test the kiln. By setting the limit timer to 12 (the longest setting available), the Firemate to C (medium), and the thumbwheel to 1, I did manage to get the elements to heat up to red hot, and the kiln sitter cone bent a little I don’t have a pyrometer, but based on the cone (see pic), I’m guessing that the kiln got to around 06 after about 5 hours of firing. What happened yesterday, and has happened in the past, is that the power to the kiln shuts off (the light on the kiln sitter goes off), but the kiln sitter has not dropped, and the time on the limit timer has not elapsed. The kiln is plugged into a GFCI outlet, which has not tripped. I’m thinking maybe there is something wrong with the limit timer? I eventually would like to fire bisque to 04, and glaze fire to 5. Help!
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  6. Bill: results from Ougland & Brindley study on heat work. 2192F (1200C) minimum further development of the clay body after this point. Minor decreases in absorption, along with minor increases in glass content. See chart below. Typical cone six ramp hold temperature for maturity. ----------------- --------------------- 2192F (1200C.). Glass 62. Silica 21. Mullite 19 2372F (1300C). Glass 66. Silica 16. Mullite 21 (Ougland & Brindley) Off topic, Ron Roy emailed me: he is doing a work shop nearby in June. Looking forward to seeing my friend. Tom
  7. I am a beginner in the field of glazing , i want to make some tiles and i heard about a technique called cuerda seca mostly used on tiles work. i searched alot for the recipe or formula for the material used in this technique to be applied by silk screen but can’t get what am looking for, just found one product called artistic line resist but unfortunately it couldn’t be delivered to my country. so please if anyone could help me with that i will be so thankful, all i know about this material that it contains a bit of wax
  8. Thanks oldlady so much but my country is egypt. i made too much trials and searches about this material every where but find no thing most of people mentioned using of oil as base for this material but oil is not efficient. am waiting for the recipe you got from the book.
  9. Good point - just to add, For newbies the 108 - 125 final rate segment in the last 200 - 250 degrees will get your cone to bend at or near the published temperature. The cone chart is based on it. Cone 04 - cone 6 - cone 10. The heatwork in the final segment is most significant to maturity and I find the simplified thermodynamic approach is simpler for most to grasp. We often use a simple analogy when students ask about firing to lower cones and adding a hold. At some point it becomes non functional, insignificant and doesn’t work. Our simple analogy is cooking a pizza. Cook it forever at 200 degrees, probably never gonna work. Cook it at 425 for 10 minutes and it’s a masterpiece! (Hopefully) I just don’t want folks to feel this is a cone 6 thing, it’s a maturity and heatwork thing that applies reasonably well throughout. Just my thought though ..... I think I will warm up the oven, pizza for lunch!
  10. Mama is like snot. Unless you thin it a lot its going to clog the gun. You can stick wood ash or iron wash without Magma. Not many here use the stuff-I love the stuff but only in needed applications let us know how it turns out-I suggets thinning it with hot water in a blender before adding to any sporay mix. Not sure why you would use it to spray? unless you mean you are using it in thiose glazes or washes then spraying it?? And if so I thionk you will have zero issues doing so.
  11. Thanks for all the tips! Based on all the info gathered, my next step is to sieve the glaze. Will check back with results!
  12. Tom, for the sake of clarity (for the newer potters on the forum) it would be a good idea to say this would be for a cone 6 firing. Thanks.
  13. Are the botton of the plates glazes or raw?do they have feet or are they flat. More info please is needed
  14. I finally succumbed to the cup on top for my glazes. Gravity helps and none of my old very expensive syphon type automotive guns like glaze nor is glaze like paint. They don’t rust though, no cheap steel parts. Some of my cups have a ball valve so it’s easy to just fill them in standby mode. Kind of spoiled in that way as I just refuse to tolerate the inconvenience of a bad cup setup. Another black hole - also been working on airbrushing underglaze around 1 mm. Magma results should be interesting
  15. I've seen this happen on really thin thrown plates. Are you trimmIng at all?
  16. If anyone ran measured effects of heat work, it would be Orton Sr. He wrote several abstracts for American Ceramic Society, I will nose around and see what I can find. The other source would be Ougland and Brindley from the British Ceramic Society: "Effects of a High Temperature on Kaolinite" I read that abstract, and quoted some of it in my threads. It has since been pulled down, sadly. I have been pricing gradient kilns: and potters gasp at the price of an electric. Keep waiting for a good used one to come along. From my observation pending kiln size: there can be up to 40F difference in a large chamber. Years ago I started mixing my crystalline glazes via PH meter. I raise the PH in cold spots, and lower it in cold spots: works fairly well. I would put conduction up to 2000F, and radiation there after. Edit add: If Edison did not have Telsa: his inventions would have been few. IMOIMO Tom
  17. i have experience in using HVLP and siphon spray guns. you can keep all the complicated HVLP guns, just don't try to take my simple to clean siphon type. EZE makes a good sprayer, their bottles are a four letter word, though.
  18. No enough said, it sounds like an interesting study. We surmise that convection is minor, conduction somewhat contributory and radiation the predominate thermal engine after red heat. Just curious if someone quantified this throughout the firing and related it to core temps is all. We have no effective way to test this in a practical manner. *Seger my unsung hero BTW much like Nikola Tesla* As to gradients, the difference in ware temperature top to bottom is usually significant as well as outside to in, yet quartz inversion happens across a fairly specific temperature so our supposition has always been clay can take a good bit of stress and movement since parts of a body are inverting while other parts are not. I was hoping the study would maybe provide some quantifiable evidence in this respect to expand on the clay can take it theory. As to final leg of the firing, consistent with what we teach so no new revelation from the X-ray analysis is my take. Can you get your hands on the equipment? I have a handful of tests I need to do. thanks! Hey, last random thought R.T. Stull taught at Uof I!
  19. welcome, what country? the label on the jar shows that the material can be piped. that is the most commonly used way of applying the lines. Angelica Pozo, in the USA, wrote a book about tiles and included this technique. i have her recipe in my studio and will find it for you. it is very simple. you have put your question in a section where many members who can help may not see it. could you move it from "forum FAQ and terms of use" to one called "Clay and Glaze Chemistry" so you can get an answer. you never need to start with a cry for help, that is what you always need when you ask a question.
  20. Show us a picture of what you are seeing. best, Pres
  21. Now that the MAGMA product is in my arsenal, I'm thinking different ways to use it. Do you think it would play nice in a HVLP spray gun? I'm thinking about using it to float wood ash or my iron wash and spray a light coat over glazes. You'd certainly want to clean the gun well after each use and getting the mixture to the right consistency would be critical. I'm just wondering if anyone has already tried this. If not, I'll let you know.
  22. Sorry Bill, I broke my two cup rule. Never answer questions until I finish the second cup. As I recall: one study was done in Brazil , one in India for their Government, and one in Germany? All three used gradient kilns with 6-10 chambers and 10-15C variation between chambers. The one in India was testing laterite, and reported an exothermic reaction at 2050F. The study in San Paulo? Actually used bars in various thickness 1/4 to 1/2 in a multi chamber gradient kiln: that studied produced the time of heat absorption and release at 2050F: conduction being the focus as I recall. The one out of Germany was studying local materials, and reported the reaction at 2050F. So 2050F spinel to mullite temp has been confirmed numerous times. U of I (Champaign/Urbana) has numerous studies up on their Ceramic Technology site. I posted a link in one of my ramblings somewhere : stoneware study thread I think. They used X-ray diffraction to analyze heat work and the phase changes in potassium and sodium. At 2190F, sodium and potassium are spent- no longer visible. I cannot confirm this: but I suspect this is where the commonly used 2190F peak with hold firing cycle came from. Orton Sr. Did extensive studies back in 1909-1919 range(?) noted in my Nerds Firing Schedule thread. He proposed the 108F ramp speed for several reasons: primarily to burn off inorganic carbons, secondly for heat work purposes. As you well know, cones are based on Segers work, but Orton did the initial testing on calibrated heat work. did I answer them that time, or do I need a third cup? Check my Stoneware study thread, Nerds Firing Schedule thread, and possibly my Porcelain thread. I have links to studies floating all around. I do know some studies are no longer accessible: Wiley Library has been buying them up and archiving them. Tom
  23. I realize this topic is 6 yrs old, however, as a local potter who took classes and went to night school for ceramics as well, albeit without a degree, if I had had all the technicalities dumped on me from the beginning and the strict guidelines, it would have killed any desire I had to enjoy clay. I think the first things to establish are, how do you like the feel of clay in your hands, moving on to experimenting with it to see if you like it well enough to take serious classes, and then college courses where you spend time on how to and when to and why. And by the way, there are many correct ways of getting from point A to point B depending on how you perceive it. I don't think strict rules do or should apply in the world of art. Clay and it's manipulators are constantly evolving. I began at age 56, I will be 76 in August. I love it, I've sold it, I have to have it and to keep making , but I do it my way, always trying new things and I'm still enjoying my passionate and very personal relationship with clay. All this is to explain that a one or two week clay class is to allow who's taking it, to see if this is something they want to pursue, whether for pleasure or profit.
  24. “Several universities across the world have done studies using X-ray defraction to measure heat work in gradient kilns. The general consensus being that it can take up to 30 minutes for the atmospheric temperature to reach the core of the clay body in the 3/8 to 1/2" thick range. “ I am good with the process my question goes to the X-ray diffraction analysis and rates. Most kilns I come across are gradient to some extent but you mentioned rates and thickness and confirmation by analysis. Two part question: Did the analysis differentiate between convection, conduction, and radiation, and if yes to what extent did these thermodynamic processes differ in the efficiency of warming the bodies so to speak. ( Just curious for my relay / shelves project and mass reduction) The rate of 108-125 degrees in the final 250 degrees is needed for an Orton cone to bend at its prescribed temperature. I was just curious if this was their recommended rate based on the diffraction analysis?
  25. Bill: Clay goes through three endothermic (absorbs heat) phases, and one exothermic (releases heat) phase. 200-250F atmospheric moisture is driven off. Potters already know what happens when they blow through this ramp too fast. The reason most controller programs have a hold at this temperature. 573C/ 1064F quartz inversion. Pottery books explain this as alpha quartz converting to beta quartz. The technical aspect: at this temperature kaolin becomes metakaolin. Metakaolin is a fancy word for: all molecular water has been driven off. What is missing from the explanation is: silica (quartz) expands at this temperature: the reason bisq is so absorptive. However, molecular water begins to be driven off at 1030F.. So you have two processes going on at inversion: silica is expanding, and kaolin is shrinking because molecular moisture is being driven off. Porcelain is typically 50% kaolin and kaolin can have up to 15% molecular moisture. The high silica content of porcelain is expanding, at the same time the high molecular moisture content of kaolin is shrinking: which explains why porcelain bodies are much more susceptible to dunting at inversion. At 950C/1745F metakaolin begins to convert to spinel. Spinel is composed of alumina and silica: with excess silica being ejected as crystallyttes. The spinel conversion is what gives bisq its mass: sodium and potassium begin to melt above 2000F. The safety police get bent out of joint over many things pottery related: but in my opinion bisq is the most dangerous respiratory stage of pottery. As mentioned before: at 1730 metakaolin converts to spinel. When spinel forms, it ejects excess silica in the form crystallyttes. That white powder on bisq is almost pure crystalline silica in the 30,000 mesh range. Which is why I wash bisq straight out of the kiln; actually I converted to single fire a few years back so I would not have to deal with it. Let the glaze absorb it. At 2050F is when spinel begins to convert to mullite: the only exothermic change clay goes through. Like quartz inversion, several things are going on at one time. Potassium begins to melt at 2012F, sodium begins to melt at 2044F, and spinel begins to convert to mullite at 2050F. Sodium and potassium convert from solids to gas as they melt, which are the source of pinholes and blisters. As mentioned earlier: it can take up to 30 minute for the atmospheric temperature to penetrate a 1/2" wall. When you fast ramp in this upper temp range: your glaze might melt, but the core of the clay body is still immature. This equates to higher pinhole problems, and higher absorption rates. The slower you ramp above 2050F to cone 6; the more mullite develop occurs, and spars off gas better. This all reverts back to clay chemistry: porcelain bodies are held to a 4:1 SiAL ratio to: 1. Achieve maximum mullite development. 2. Minimize the amount of crystallytes produced. We only see the crystallyttes on the surface after bisq, the core is filled with them as well. Again back to clay chemistry: spar addition are there for glass content development, but also there to absorb crystallytes into that melt. If a clay body is not mixed according to certain parameters: you can fire it till he'll freezes over: it will still weep or absorb water. the final note is above 2230F. If the flux levels are off, and silica is too high, and alumina too low: crystallytes will not be absorbed into the melt. Free crystallytes then convert to cristabolite instead of mullite. You will know if that happens around 450F (cooling) and strange pinging noises are coming from your kiln during cristabolite inversion. As porcelain is more prone to quartz inversion due to its kaolin and silica content: stoneware is more prone to cristabolite inversion due to its much lower flux content. Porcelain typically has 25-30% flux content! and stoneware only 10-14%. Tom
  26. Wondered if anyone has used jiffy pots (the seed starter pots) as clay forms? I will be working with little kids this summer and I want them to experience making a pot that actually looks like a flower pot but wasn't sure if It would release the clay. i know it will wick away some of the moisture but don't know if it will hold up. I'm a volunteer at a local art studio and would love to hear from someone. Thank you
  27. howare you drying them? how are you trimming them?
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